hipaa cloud security

Privacy, Security, HIPAA and you.

Medical devices, mobile apps, Web applications – storing data in the cloud, sharing with hospitals and doctors. How do I comply with HIPAA? What applies to me – the Security Rule, the Privacy Rule or both?

Consider a common use case these days – you’re a medical device vendor and your device stores health information in the cloud. You have a web and/or mobile application that enable doctors/hospitals to access the data from my device as part of their healthcare services. If you operate in the United States, what HIPAA regulations apply ? Do I need to comply with the Privacy Rule, the Security Rule or both?

There is a good deal of confusion regarding the HIPAA Privacy and Security Rules and how things work. In this article, we will examine the original content of the HIPAA regulation and explain who needs to do what.

What is the Privacy Rule?

The HIPAA Final Rule (enacted in Jan 2013) has 2 pieces – the Privacy Rule and the Security Rule.

The Privacy Rule establishes standards for the protection of health information. The Security Rule establishes security standards for protecting health information that is held or transferred in electronic form. The Privacy Rule broadly defines ‘‘protected health information’’ as individually identifiable health information maintained or transmitted by a covered entity in any form or medium. The Privacy Rule is located at 45 CFR Part 160 and Subparts A and E of Part 164.

Who needs to comply with the Privacy Rule?

By law, the HIPAA Privacy Rule applies only to covered entities – health plans, health care clearinghouses, and certain health care providers. However, most health care providers and health plans do not carry out all of their health care activities and functions by themselves. Instead, they often use the services of a variety of other persons or businesses – and transfer/exchange health information in electronic form to use these services. These “persons or businesses” are called “business associates”; defined in 45 CFR 164.502(e), 164.504(e), 164.532(d) and (e) 45 CFR § 160.102, 164.500.

What is the Security Rule?

The Security Rule operationalizes the Privacy Rule by addressing the technical and non-technical safeguards that the “covered entities” and their business associates must implement in order to secure individuals’ “electronic protected health information” (EPHI). The Security Rule is located at 45 CFR Part 160 and Subparts A and C of Part 164.

Who needs to comply with the Security Rule?

Since its an operational requirement, the Security Rule (by law) applies to covered entities, business associates and their sub-contractors. While the Privacy Rule applies to protected health information in all forms, the Security Rule applies only to electronic health information systems that maintain or transmit individually identifiable health information. Safeguards for protected health information in oral, written, or other non-electronic forms are unaffected by the Security Rule.

Business associate liability

Section 13404 of the HITECH Act creates direct liability for impermissible uses and disclosures of protected health information by a business associate of a covered entity “that obtains or creates” protected health information “pursuant to a written contract or other arrangement described in § 164.502(e)(2)” and for compliance with the other privacy provisions in the HITECH Act.

Section 13404 does not create direct liability for business associates with regard to compliance with all requirements under the Privacy Rule (i.e., does not treat them as covered entities). Therefore, under the final rule, a business associate is directly liable under the Privacy Rule for uses and disclosures of protected health information that are not in accord with its business associate agreement or the Privacy Rule.

Permitted use of EPHI by a business associate

While a business associate does not have health care operations, it is permitted by § 164.504(e)(2)(i)(A) to use and disclose protected health information as necessary for its own management and administration if the business associate agreement permits such activities, or to carry out its legal responsibilities. Other than the exceptions for the business associate’s management and administration and for data aggregation services relating to the health care operations of the covered entity, the business associate may not use or disclose protected health information in a manner that would not be permissible if done by the covered entity (even if such a use or disclosure is permitted by the business associate agreement).

Taken from the Federal Register

General Definitions

See § 160.103 for HIPAA general definitions used by the law – definitions of business associates, protected health information and more.

Summary

  • The Privacy Rule establishes standards for the protection of health information.
  • The Security Rule establishes operational security standards for protecting health information that is held or transferred in electronic form.
  • The Security Rule applies only to electronic health information systems that maintain or transmit individually identifiable health information. Safeguards for protected health information in oral, written, or other non-electronic forms are unaffected by the Security Rule.
  • Business associates do not have direct liability with regard to compliance with all requirements under the Privacy Rule (i.e., does not treat them as covered entities). A business associate is directly liable under the Privacy Rule for uses and disclosures of protected health information that are not in accord with its business associate agreement or the Privacy Rule.

 

Related Posts Plugin for WordPress, Blogger...
Tell your friends and colleagues about us. Thanks!
Share this

Leave a Reply

Your email address will not be published. Required fields are marked *